Toledo Society

E3: Who was Emir AbdelKader, the hero of humanity?

I grew up Muslim and British. Some people use their differences as an excuse to keep away from other people. Their universe is limited to those who look like them, or sound like them, or pray like them.

But even from a young age, I wanted to believe that we had more in common than what drove us apart. I cherished our diversity, and believed it was a good thing; the more different kinds of people contribute to society, the better off we all are.

When I came across Abdel-Kader, I have to admit I was surprised.

Even though we were from different times and places, I was amazed by his generosity, moved by his courage, and inspired by his humanitarianism. He was proud of his religion, but at the same time he believed in our common humanity.

Abdel-Kader once said: “Don’t ask about a man’s genealogy, but about his character, his life, and his deeds. Drink the water. If it is pure, so is the source.”

Listen online at the bottom of this page, or wherever you get your podcasts:
Download now on Apple Podcasts.
Stream for free on Spotify.

Transcript

I grew up Muslim and British. Some people use their differences as an excuse to keep away from other people. Their universe is limited to those who look like them, or sound like them, or pray like them.

But even from a young age, I wanted to believe that we had more in common than what drove us apart. I cherished our diversity, and believed it was a good thing; the more different kinds of people contribute to society, the better off we all are.

When I came across Abdel-Kader, I have to admit I was surprised.

Even though we were from different times and places, I was amazed by his generosity, moved by his courage, and inspired by his humanitarianism. He was proud of his religion, but at the same time he believed in our common humanity.

Abdel-Kader once said: “Don’t ask about a man’s genealogy, but about his character, his life, and his deeds. Drink the water. If it is pure, so is the source.”

Such wise words, from a time when the world was even more divided than it is now.

I’m Muddassar Ahmed from Toledo Society, and I’m excited to welcome you to the final installment of this 3-part series, ‘Who Was Emir Abdel-Kader, the Hero of Humanity?’

Intro:

Sufism is a mystical branch of Islam, divided into orders that long ago spread across the world. Abdel-Kader’s father was a wise Sufi leader, and he raised Abdel-Kader to be a Sufi just like himself. 

In his writings on Algeria, famous French political scientist and historian Alexis de Tocqueville even mentioned Abdel-Kader’s father by name. But Abdel-Kader’s father made sure his son was educated not just in the ways of Islam, but of the wider world.

While coming of age in 19th century Algeria, he studied Greek philosophy, geometry and mathematics, rhetoric and poetry, and learned, like many of his tribe, the life of a desert horseman.

His father took him to Syria and to Egypt, where he met the great reformer and leader, Muhammad Ali, who was busy transforming his country into a modern nation, with the latest technology and most sophisticated institutions.

Abdel-Kader impressed Muhammad Ali—but must have been impressed in turn. He returned to Algeria conscious of how fast the world was changing, and deeply aware of the Muslim world’s need to catch up with Europe.

Without understanding these childhood experiences, we can’t understand Abdel-Kader. We might appreciate his military strategy, or his remarkable courage under fire, but we’d miss the deeper vision behind it.

After all, there’s a reason the same man who built a state to resist the West later in life supported the Europeans in building the Suez Canal.

Or we might focus on Abdel-Kader’s intervention to save Syrian Christians and European diplomats and miss the deeper spiritual values behind it.

Abdel-Kader was a scholar and a sage who was forced by circumstance to turn to the sword; he became a noble warrior, but only for as long as he needed to be, and not for a moment longer.

Sting Music

Sufism grew out of the Muslim tradition and it emphasizes the inner and private development of each person. If it is wrong to speak ill of others, as Islam teaches, then Sufism encourages you not to even think ill of others.

As you are without, be so within.

For generations, Sufism was at the heart of the Islamic world, whether in Southeast Asia or Northwest Africa. Abdel-Kader’s Algerian experience was no different.

He was raised in a Sufi lodge, followed Sufi saints, and drew much of his authority from his learning and piety. This spiritual history is critical to understanding how Muslims, Abdel-Kader included, responded to colonial invasions.

When European colonizers attacked Muslim societies and violently overthrew their governments, Sufis were the first to offer resistance. That’s how Abdel-Kader found himself at the heart of a war to save Algeria from French occupation.

Yet Abdel-Kader believed, as a Muslim, that there were clear limits to conduct in war.

It was also part of Abdel-Kader’s genius that he knew when war could no longer achieve its objectives—and it was part of his resilience as a human being and man of faith that Abdel-Kader did not take defeat on the battlefield to mean defeat in life.

He withdrew to a life of learning and writing, some of his earliest passions. He was happy doing so, but when the Christians of Syria came under attack, he knew that as a servant of God he could not be silent.

Far away, in the mountainous Caucasus, history was going the same way. Just swap out the names of the countries involved. Russia invaded Chechnya, and Sufis mobilized in resistance. Their war was led by a Commander called Imam Shamil.

Like Abdel-Kader, Imam Shamil was a Sufi inspired by Islam’s universal and humanitarian values. Imam Shamil took great care to protect innocent life, respect different religions, and cherish human brotherhood.

Shamil recognized a kindred spirit in Abdel-Kader. The 19th century Chechen Imam is on record praising his Algerian counterpart for ‘his courage to do what his faith required—to protect the innocent.’

Abdel-Kader’s courage in protecting innocent life had a surprisingly powerful influence on the world we are fortunate to live in today.

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The 2013 International Humanitarian Law Conference in Algiers reveals one of Emir Abdel-Kader’s most profound legacies.

The conference took place in 2013 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 130th anniversary of Abdel-Kader’s death, and the 50th anniversary of Algerian independence.

This conference concluded that Abdel-Kader was “an undisputed leader in the codification of modern, international humanitarian law.”

While Abdel-Kader’s principles for the treatment of prisoners were Qur’anically-inspired and sanctioned, they were also a major source of the Geneva Convention’s ruling on the treatment of prisoners of war, upheld by the United Nations.

In other words, the way Abdel-Kader treated his prisoners, with such integrity, compassion, and respect, might have been inspired by his Muslim faith. But that treatment also inspired the Geneva Convention.

I like to think the Emir would be astonished by how much influence he had over the world we live in. I like to think he’d be moved by the overlap between traditionally. Muslim and modern Western beliefs about the sanctity of life.

We have more in common than drives us apart.

Sting Music

Some of the French who supported conquering Algeria wanted the territory for its resources and strategic location. Others went much further, and advocated a policy of extermination, a genocide of the local population so the French could settle the land.

Such extreme Islamophobia meant that Abdel-Kader was, at first, passionately hated. He was seen as the representative of a corrupt, backwards religion, which barely deserved to be called a civilization, and may even have deserved annihilation.

Grudgingly, however, the French came to respect him, and then even admire him. Soon the world celebrated him.

Though French and European colonialism was changing the world for the worse, he was changing it for the better.

Islamophobia in 19th century Europe was a lot worse than it is today and even under these circumstances, Abdel-Kader managed to reach the hearts and minds of Europeans everywhere. He made the sternest Islamophobes doubt themselves.

On meeting him, a French general described him in glowing terms: ‘His clothes were no different than the most common Arab. He is pale and resembles portraits one sees of Jesus Christ. His entire physiognomy is that of a monk.”

Abdel-Kader died in 1883, and was buried, at his request, beside the tomb of a great Spanish Sufi, Ibn Arabi, who had also made his way to Syria, centuries before. With Abdel-Kader’s passing, the New York Times wrote of the:

“…nobility of his character, no less than the brilliancy of his exploits in the field, long ago won him the admiration of the world.”

The newspaper continued: “If to be an ardent patriot, a soldier whose genius is unquestioned, whose honor is stainless; a statesman who could weld the wild tribes of Africa into a formidable enemy, a hero who could accept defeat and disaster without a murmur – if all these constitute a great man, Abdel-Kader deserves to be ranked among the foremost of the few great men of the century.”

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I hope there are more Abdel-Kaders around the corner. Until then, we can still study his life and practice his values and principles to positively change the world around us.

Muslims, and especially young Muslims, are eager for people who embody the values they know are at the heart of their faith.

Muslims, and especially young Muslims, need to know that their faith and their co-religionists also helped to shape the world we live in today.

When I launched this series, I decided to call Abdel-Kader a ‘hero of humanity’. And now, finally, I can tell you why he’s a hero. Not just because of his bravery in battle, or his pious determination in prison, or his courage in his old age.

It’s simpler than that.

He was the same within as he was without.

We know this because he was the same in private and in public.

He acted the same way, whether his followers were watching or he was shut away in a a cell, far away from the world’s attention. His behavior wasn’t a performance. He was driven by values and a code of honor.

That meant he wasn’t aggressive for the sake of being aggressive, or passive for the sake of being passive.

When the need called for it, he resorted to arms to defend people’s rights. But when that time had passed, Abdel-Kader left the battlefield, but he never left behind his commitment to people’s dignity and humanity.

CLOSING

Like many people born into a faith tradition, I search for spiritual meaning and direction. I find guidance in the life of a freedom fighter, an underdog, a prisoner who maintained his beliefs in extraordinary circumstances, and who worked to protect all faiths.

I’m not Algerian, not even African or Arab, but I find inspiration in Abdel-Kader’s life and story. It fills me with pride and, when I’m moved by something, I simply must share it. I have no choice but to: How can I keep such a wonderful story to myself?

Studying the life of Abdel-Kader makes me wonder: How many more people are there, out there, like him?

And who out there, maybe even listening in now, might be the next Abdel-Kader?

From Toledo Society, I am Muddassar Ahmed, and you’ve been listening to the final episode of our series, “Who Was Emir Abdel-Kader, the Hero of Humanity?”

And what better way to leave you than with Algerian singing sensation Cheb Khalid’s wildly popular song, ‘Abdel-Kader’?

We hope you’ve enjoyed this series and don’t forget to let us know your thoughts, rate us and please donate as well! 

E2: Who was Emir AbdelKader, the hero of humanity?

Over three hundred years ago, a poorly-armed Algerian Muslim leader battled one of the best-equipped armies in the world – and against all odds, held his ground.

For a while.  The story of that struggle, and the legacy of that warrior, is one of the greatest stories in Islamic history.

That warrior was of course Abdel-Kader, an Algerian Sufi.

He was more than just a warrior; Abdel-Kader was also a statesman, a diplomat, a Muslim scholar, a strategist and tactician, and a humanitarian.

He’s one of the most interesting personalities of the 19th century, but more than that, he matters a lot to the 21st century.

And to me…

Listen online at the bottom of this page, or wherever you get your podcasts:
Download now on Apple Podcasts.
Stream for free on Spotify.

Transcript

Over three hundred years ago, a poorly-armed Algerian Muslim leader battled one of the best-equipped armies in the world – and against all odds, held his ground.

For a while.  

The story of that struggle, and the legacy of that warrior, is one of the greatest stories in Islamic history.

That warrior was of course Abdel-Kader, an Algerian Sufi.

He was more than just a warrior; Abdel-Kader was also a statesman, a diplomat, a Muslim scholar, a strategist and tactician, and a humanitarian.

He’s one of the most interesting personalities of the 19th century, but more than that, he matters a lot to the 21st century.

And to me.

Sting

I’m Muddassar Ahmed from Toledo Society, and I’m excited to welcome you to the second episode of a 3-part series, ‘Who Was Emir Abdel-Kader, the Hero of Humanity?’

Intro

During the time of King Charles X, the imperial French army defeated the Ottomans in Algeria, and occupied the country. While the French consolidated their control over his homeland, a young Abdel-Kader was traveling to Alexandria, Egypt, and Damascus, Syria, to study with great religious scholars.

Abdel-Kader returned, energized by his learning, and eager to oust the French from his homeland. An opportunity presented itself when Abdel-Kader’s father was asked to lead a campaign against the French, but he refused and abdicated. That responsibility fell to the young Abdel-Kader instead.

In the fall of 1832, this 24 year-old young man found himself unexpectedly elected Emir, or Commander of the Faithful, of all Muslims of Algeria.

Sting

Abdel-Kader quickly established himself in western Algeria, and used his formidable skill in diplomacy and religion to get the major tribes of his region to unite behind him. The French Commander-in-Chief, General Desmichels, quickly came to understand that Abdel-Kader was fast becoming a formidable enemy.

Though he had limited technology and weaponry, Abdel-Kader’s tactical brilliance in battle pressured the French to give over an entire province to his control. They figured this would limit Abdel-Kader’s influence, but instead this raised his profile, and rallied more Algerians to his cause.

Very soon, Abdel-Kader was winning the battle for hearts and minds, and building a modern society, attracting multiethnic and multireligious talent to his cause. Frustrated by his growing influence, the French appointed a new Commander-in-Chief, and resumed hostilities. Abdel-Kader had no choice but to go to war again.

And that’s something important to understand.

Unlike the world we live in today, back in the 19th century, nations didn’t really have fixed boundaries. They were either expanding or contracting. More powerful nations swallowed up weaker nations. There was no United Nations to appeal to, no concept of international law or universal human rights.

Which makes Abdel-Kader’s career all the more astonishing. 

StingIn 1834, in the scorching heat of summer, French and Algerian forces clashed at the Battle of Macta, which was a resounding victory for Emir Abdel-Kader. Hostilities continued, but to the disadvantage of the French. At the Treaty of Tafna, the French surrendered even more control to Abdel-Kader, with one caveat.

He would have to recognize French imperial authority.

That only made him seem more powerful: Now he was negotiating with Paris itself.

After this great victory, some of the Emir’s followers called on Abdel-Kader to declare himself ‘Sultan,’ but Abdel-Kader declined the title—he was content in his authority as a spiritual leader, and as a leader of the resistance. His job was to understand what God wanted of him, and to bring it about in the world.

Some religious people are narrow-minded and provincial. The more they believe, the less room they have for people different from themselves. But there is another kind of religious person, the kind of person who starts to think universally, and begins to believe all people deserve the same rights.

Sting

Over the following years, Abdel-Kader’s territory expanded across Algeria, and in this land he built a remarkable state. He convinced Jews and Christians to join him in building his country and running his government.

He lived frugally and encouraged others to live within their means. Abdel-Kader shunned accolades for himself, but cultivated scholarship, celebrated poetry, and urged his people to invest in modern education.

His new nation of Algeria had much promise, but also had a problem.

In 1839, the treacherous French not only violated the Treaty of Tafna, but launched a scorched-earth campaign, brutalizing the Algerian people.  

Though Abdel-Kader would fight to defend his country and his people, he was unable to effectively counter French aggression.

Sting

But even when severely weakened, Abdel-Kader upheld morality, decency, and compassion. When he lacked sufficient resources to feed his French prisoners-of-war, much to their surprise, he released them.

He went out of his way to protect houses of worship, as well as priests and nuns.

In the end, though, the French were just too powerful. No matter how remarkable his victories, Abdel-Kader couldn’t sustain a conflict against an industrial war machine.

By 1842, Abdel-Kader had lost almost all his territory.

In 1847, Abdel-Kader was forced to surrender to the French. Just a few days before Christmas, he agreed to live the rest of his life in exile in the Alexandria that enchanted him when he was a young man. To prove his goodwill, Abdel-Kader even handed over his beloved war horse to the French governor.

At his surrender, a sisterhood of nuns joined him—they had been moved by his decency, and keen to ensure he was not mistreated. Maybe they had a hunch, a feeling that the French would betray him. And as it happens, they did.

The French went back on their word, though Abdel-Kader had been nothing but faithful to the terms of his surrender. The French captured Abdel-Kader and instead of taking him to a peaceful exile in Egypt, sent him to France, with his family and followers, where they were cruelly imprisoned.

Sting

But as news of Abdel-Kader’s fate and condition spread across France, public agitation grew. The Emir was highly regarded by the French elite, and famous among the French public. He was recognized as a noble leader who had the respect of his countrymen, a man who fought heroically, and treated his enemies with compassion and decency.

Here was a man who put others before himself. His homeland before pride. His faith in God before his own glory. Domestic and international pressure escalated; even the British government was involved in making the case for the Emir’s freedom.

In 1852, after almost five years of captivity, then French President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte released the Emir and his entourage.

President Bonaparte agreed to a 100,000-franc annual pension, on the condition that  Abdel-Kader never again return to or interfere in the affairs of his beloved Algeria.

It was a bittersweet victory, but the Emir upheld the terms of his release to the end of his life.

Sting music

By 1855, the Emir had settled in Ottoman Damascus. Shortly afterwards, a conflict erupted, between members of two religious communities, the Druze and Maronite Christians, living in the city.

The Emir intervened and played the part of peacemaker. Abdel-Kader not only protected Christians with his tongue, but with his body, and at the risk of his life.

Many in France were stunned, and deeply moved.

Here was a man whose homeland they had invaded, who they had imprisoned, but who then stood up for their co-religionists in a bloody conflict. Abdel-Kader was elderly, and exhausted from years of war and imprisonment, but boldly rushed forward to protect the vulnerable Christians in a moment of heated sectarian tension.

And all of this, at a great risk to himself.

What was to say Abdel-Kader would not be killed for defending them?

What sort of person makes that kind of sacrifice?

This was an age when Islamophobia ran rampant throughout Europe. The popular opinion of Muslims was not very good, and frequently hostile. Muslim-majority countries were seen as fair game in competitions for conquest and control, and many European intellectuals assumed Islam was inherently backwards, ignorant, and regressive.

In that kind of world, the legacy of Emir Abdel-Kader seems all the more remarkable.

When the French proposed the Suez Canal, Abdel-Kader played a critical role in drumming up Arab support for the massive project. He was present at the opening, too: This is a reminder not just of his desire to be a bridge between worlds, but of his ability to think strategically, beyond the immediate and into the future.

He understood the importance of this project to the Muslim world, and threw his weight behind it.  

It may seem to us that the worlds of the West and of Islam are doomed to misunderstanding, tension, or even outright conflict, but in the Emir Abdel-Kader we find an alternative vision. Rather than encourage tension between Christians and Muslims, he encouraged the Islamic mission of understanding and compassion.

And this melted the hearts of the French public, and European society, humanizing Muslims. So much so that, during his captivity, the citizens of Bordeaux, France, mobilized to have his name placed on the French Presidential ballot! They preferred a Muslim Abdel-Kader ruling France in place of its current government.

STING:

From Toledo Society, I am Muddassar Ahmed, and you have been listening to episode two in a three-part series: “Who Was Emir Abdel-Kader, the Hero of Humanity?”

Coming up in our next and final installment, we’ll explore how Abdel-Kader became the kind of man he was, and how those lessons still speak to us, one hundred and fifty years after his death.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this episode and season and don’t forget to let us know your thoughts, rate us and please donate as well! 

E1: Who was Emir AbdelKader, the hero of humanity?

In the heart of Middle America, in the northeast corner of the State of Iowa, there’s a small town, a town so tiny it doesn’t even have a traffic light.

In 1846, Timothy Davis founded that settlement, and named it Elkader, after an Algerian Sufi whose exploits had taken the Western world by storm.

What might possess a midwestern American of the 19th century to name his town after a North African Muslim sheikh?

Listen online at the bottom of this page, or wherever you get your podcasts:
Download now on Apple Podcasts.
Stream for free on Spotify.

Transcript

In the heart of Middle America, in the northeast corner of the State of Iowa, there’s a small town, a town so tiny it doesn’t even have a traffic light.

In 1846, Timothy Davis founded that settlement, and named it Elkader, after an Algerian Sufi whose exploits had taken the Western world by storm.

What might possess a midwestern American of the 19th century to name his town after a North African Muslim sheikh?

I’m Muddassar Ahmed from Toledo Society, and I’m excited to welcome you to the first episode of a 3-part series, ‘Who Was Emir Abdel-Kader, the Hero of Humanity?’

Intro:

People might have asked you: ‘If you could meet anyone from history, who would it be?’ Well, I know my answer. It’s The Emir, Abdel-Kader. Emir means ‘Commander of the Faithful.’ It’s a title Abdel-Kader certainly earned.

Because that’s what he was. A Commander. But not just that.

Emir Abdel-Kader was an extraordinary human being who led a phenomenal life, who grew from being an ordinary Algerian Sufi to a world-historical figure with a legacy that stretches across four continents.

I first stumbled upon Abdel-Kader’s legend by listening to a popular song, fittingly enough called ‘Abdel Kader,’ by the famous Algerian Rai singer Cheb Khaled, who also sang the very well-known song ‘Aisha’.

I started out curious, just wondering who the lyrics celebrated, and quickly became fascinated.

Indeed, when Abdel-Kader died, in 1883, the New York Times surveyed the remarkable achievements of his life and wrote that he should be counted one of the few great men of that century.

Abdel-Kader’s one of the most interesting people in history, and yet so few people know about him. How did Abdel-Kader become who he was? Why did Abdel-Kader become who he was?

And how did he end up with a town named after him in Iowa?

Here’s what I learned.

At a time of rampant Islamophobic colonialism, Abdel-Kader profoundly changed how much of the Western world, and many Western leaders, thought about Muslims.

He was an interfaith leader when the world was being divided by wars of religion.

Through his laws of war, he helped inspire the Geneva Convention. In fact, his statue is one of two at the headquarters of the International Red Cross in Geneva.

His life was marked by adventure, courage, resilience, compassion—and, above all else, faith in God and dedication to humanity.

Abdel-Kader was born in 1808, in the town of Mascara, in what is today Algeria and what was then the westernmost frontier of the declining Ottoman Empire.

He came of age in his father’s zawiya, which is kind of like a Sufi lodge.

Like other students in the lodge, he was educated traditionally. Theology, Shariah, Arabic language, and grammar.

By the age of 5, Abdel-Kader could read and write. By the age of 14, he had memorized the Qur’an, earning the title of ‘Hafiz,’ or Protector of Scripture.

A year later, Abdel-Kader went on to advanced study, and was praised for his excellent oratory, his way with poetry, his skill in debating.

So he was, by the standards of then and now, a pretty smart guy. But maybe not so different from other smart guys of his time. But he was destined for greater things, because, in the distance, a storm was brewing.

Europe was rising, and the colonial project was scrambling to plunder Africa. The French looked south across the Mediterranean, and saw a valuable prize in Algeria.

In 1830, the French invaded.

Despite valiant resistance under Hussein Dey, the Ottomans faltered, and Algeria was conquered. Desperately, the local population searched for a champion to expel the invaders.

Abdel Kader would be that hero.

Just two years later, his people elected him Emir, or Commander of the Faithful, and only a year after that, Abdel-Kader had succeeded in uniting the warring tribes of the region, bringing solidarity in a land that had been insecure and unstable.

In 1834, Abdel-Kader’s forces and the French signed the Treaty of Desmichels, which further cemented his reputation as a leader of his people.

Not only was Abdel-Kader a military Commander, though, he’s actually a thoroughly decent man.

His impeccable character meant even his enemies spoke highly of him. It was said that “the generous concern, the tender sympathy” he showed his prisoners was “almost without parallel in the history of war.”

He even showed great respect for the religion of any captives, which as you know, something even modern-day leaders have a really hard time with.

But despite his brilliance as a leader, his personal character, and his skills as a tactician, he was unable to militarily defeat the French.

Indeed, within two decades of the colonial invasion, Abdel-Kader would be a captive of France. A lesser person would have given in to his circumstance, turned to random violence, or to depression.

But Abdel-Kader did not, not just because of his upstanding character, but because he had a greater plan, too.

Abdel-Kader understood that the time for military conflict had passed, and the task of the time was to convince the colonial power of the humanity of its subjects. 

He did so, and became, in captivity, a still greater hero, a living legend on the world stage. A Muslim celebrity—in xenophobic Christian Europe.

Sting music

It so happens that the way Abdel-Kader lived his life in captivity so moved his jailers that it led to his release.

Forbidden from returning to his native Algeria, he traveled instead to Bursa, in today’s Turkey, and then, in 1855, he journeyed to Damascus in what was then also a part of the Ottoman Empire.

Settled in Damascus, he turned his energies to his passion for theology and philosophy.

It was during this time he wrote one of his most famous works, The Arabian Horse. As it happens, a horse named Abdel-Kader, called ‘Little Ab’ by the racing public, was twice winner of the British Grand National Steeple Chase, in 1850 and 1851.

In fact, Little Ab was the first repeat winner of the Steeple Chase.

But back to Abdel-Kader.

While he might have thought he was going to live a low-key scholarly life with his family, his exile in Damascus was interrupted, again, by conflict.

While Abdel-Kader had warned the French consul and Damascus officials of the growing potential for violence, his pleas had fallen on deaf ears.

In 1860, a conflict between the Druze and Maronite Christians of Mount Lebanon reached Damascus. Over 3,000 Christians were killed in a brutal massacre, which local authorities were unable, or perhaps unwilling, to stop.

In the midst of this chaos, Abdel-Kader sent his eldest sons out into the streets to offer Christians shelter in his very own home, despite considerable risk to himself and to his family. A French newspaper reported eyewitness Christian accounts of Abdel-Kader’s intervention:

“We were in consternation, all of us quite convinced that our last hour had arrived. In that expectation of death, in those indescribable moments of anguish, heaven, however, sent us a savior! Abdel-Kader appeared, surrounded by his Algerians, around forty of them. He was on horseback and without arms: his handsome figure, calm and imposing, made a strange contrast with the noise and disorder that reigned everywhere.”

When rampaging crowds armed with swords and blades arrived at his door, Abdel-Kader greeted them with a speech which is still recited in the Middle East.

“You pitiful creatures!” Abdel-Kader shouted. “Is this the way you honour the Prophet Muhammad? God punish you! Shame on you, shame! The day will come when you will pay for this … I will not hand over a single Christian. They are my brothers.”

Sting – music

When the rioting in Damascus abated, Abdel-Kader led humanitarian efforts to assist the beleaguered Christians of the region; the French were so moved that he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour.

This was not his only recognition.

The Emir Abdel-Kader also received the Grand Cross of the Redeemer from Greece; the Order of the Mejidiyye, First Class, from the Ottomans; and the Order of Pius IX from the Vatican.

Even United States President Abraham Lincoln thought fit to honour him with a gift as well. Basically, everyone knew about Abdel Kader and the way he had saved the lives of people unlike himself.

STING – music

When Timothy Davis, John Thompson and Chester Sage were founding a town in north-eastern Iowa in the 1840’s, they called it ‘Elkader’—impressed by Abdel-Kader’s resistance to foreign rule and noble character, which, they felt, resonated with American values.

Why all this attention, then and now?

Abdel-Kader was a special person. He was the same in victory as he was in defeat. He acted in private the way he did in public. He fought the good fight but he was wise enough to recognize when the battle was up.

But, in defeat, he didn’t turn to extremism or lash out at the world. He rededicated himself to peace, to finding new ways of bringing people together. In exile, he studied, he taught—and he saved lives.

The lives of people very different than himself.

Abdel-Kader’s ability to combine religious and political authority has led to his being acclaimed as “Saint among the Princes, the Prince among the Saints.”

At the same time, he’s not an uncomplicated guy.

Abdel-Kader was not a so-called “moderate,” because he fought back against the French occupation of his homeland.

At the same time, he was not an extremist, because throughout his life, on the battlefield and off, he spoke of Christians and Muslims as brothers in humanity.

Abdel-Kader, it must be remembered, set up his own state in western Algeria. He employed Christian and Jewish advisors, not in spite of his Muslim faith, but because of it.

His main grievance was with foreign occupation, not the French culture or Christian religion.

Indeed, he made peace with the French, though the French later violated that truce by invading his lands yet again. Even given such treachery, Abdel-Kader sought out a priest to minister to his Christian prisoners.

He even gave them back their freedom when he could no longer feed them.

Like Saladin, he was glorified by his allies, and celebrated by his enemies.

Basically, Abdel-Kader was a man who lived on his own terms, committed to the values he believed in. And that mattered to me, you see, because I grew up a Muslim and a Westerner, at a time when many people believed these things were incompatible.

For a long time, I looked for someone who might help me navigate the confusion of modern life, someone who stood up for values I could believe in, who held true to himself, and dedicated himself to breaking boundaries.

In Abdel-Kader, I found more than I bargained for.

CHEB KHALID SONG

From Toledo Society, I am Muddassar Ahmed, and you’ve been listening to episode one in a three-part series: “Who Was Emir Abdel-Kader, the Hero of Humanity?”

In the next episode, we’ll look at the phenomenal legacy of Abdel-Kader, the transformative way in which he made his mark on four continents.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this episode and season and don’t forget to let us know your thoughts, rate us and please donate as well! 

S2E8: Palestine Pt 8 – 1400 OMG

The Madrid Talks was the first major attempt at discussion between Israel and the Arab Nations. It was headed by President George H.W. Bush and Secretary of State James Baker III. A Palestinian-Jordanian Delegation joined the talks. The importance of this event is that it was the first major event where the Palestinian question was addressed directly, and the first time the “land for peace’ solution was proposed.

This event opened the doors to further peace talks and negotiations.

Listen online at the bottom of this page, or wherever you get your podcasts:
Download now on Apple Podcasts.
Stream for free on Spotify.

Transcript

The Madrid Talks was the first major attempt at discussion between Israel and the Arab Nations. It was headed by President George H.W. Bush and Secretary of State James Baker III. A Palestinian-Jordanian Delegation joined the talks. The importance of this event is that it was the first major event where the Palestinian question was addressed directly, and the first time the “land for peace’ solution was proposed. This event opened the doors to further peace talks and negotiations.

In 1993, the Oslo Accords were signed. The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between Israel and the PLO. The accords were signed between PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, in Washington DC. Based on the accords, the PLO had to recognize Israel as a State. In Return, Palestine was granted a limited self-government parts of Gaza and the West Bank. Israel also agreed to withdraw partially from Gaza and Jericho. Palestine agreed to call an election for a Palestinian Authority to succeed the PLO. And Israel would withdraw from Civil Administration of the West Bank.

But the agreement failed. Due to violence from both sides, including a massacre by Israelis and suicide bombings by Palestinians, neither side agreed to peace, and the accords did not result in a Palestinian State. Israel continued to expand, taking over various Palestinian territories and building settlements in these lands. In 1995, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by Yigal Amir.

A stalemate continued between the two nations. Another negotiation was attempted in 1998, known as the Wye River Memorandum. It was chaired by Yassir Arafat, King Hussain of Jordan, President Bill Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. But it did not result in any positive change. The two sides remained hostile to each other, and there seemed to be no hope for peace.

Camp David II and more peace talks

In 2000, peace talks were held at Camp David for the second time. This time between PLO leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and US President Bill Clinton. The negotiations took on an all-or-nothing approach and were not successful. They discussed division of territory, especially Jerusalem and the Temple Mount, the case of the refugees, the settlements and security issues. But they were unable to reach an agreement. The talks continued in 2001, at the Taba Summit. Around this time, a second Intifada occurred in Palestine after violence broke out on both sides. The Taba Summit failed, and the situation remained the same.

In 2002, the Quartet on the Middle East proposed a road map for peace. It was first outlined by President George W. Bush. The Quartet on the Middle East is made up of the United States, United Nations, European Union and Russia. They drafted a plan for an independent Palestine to exist side by side with Israel in peace.

The plan was made up for three Phases. Phase I included Palestine and Israel mutual recognizing each other, an end to Palestinian violence, and that the Palestinian government reforms Israeli withdrawal to 2000 lines. Phase II, which was supposed to occur between Jun and December 2003, included an International conference for Palestinian economic relief; a process towards an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders; as well as discussion on solving the problems of refugees, arms control, and water issues. Phase II, which was supposed to happen in 2004 and 2005, would include an International Conference for final status issues: these included permanent borders, Jerusalem, refugees, and settlements. However, the process reached a deadlock in phase I and was never finalized.

Recent Events

The Israel-Palestine conflict is ongoing. Over the past decade various events occurred that keep the hatred between the two countries brewing. Some of the highlights from the past twenty years of Palestinian history are as follows:

In November 2004, Yasser Arafat died, and Mahmoud Abbas took over. In August 2002, Prime Minister Sharon ordered a unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza.

In January 2006, HAMAS won the elections in Gaza. Israel and the US sought to isolate and punish Gaza for electing Hamas. So, the territory became subject to sealing of borders, severe restriction of movement and goods entering the area. An embargo was placed on Gaza that remains in place until today.

In April 2006, Sharon was incapacitated by a stroke, he died in 2013. 2006 was also the year in which the Lebanon War took place. Between December 2008 and January 2009, operational Cast Lead took place in which 1400 Palestinians were kills, along with 12 Israelis. In May 2010, a fleet of Turkish ships bringing humanitarian relief to Gaza was stormed by Israeli naval forces; 9 activists were killed by IDF forces.

In November 2012, Operation Pillar of Defense took place, in which Israel attacked Palestine after 2 IDF soldiers were kills. 120 Palestinians were killed in one week.

In summer 2014, Operation Protective Edge occurred, Israeli attacked after Hamas kidnapped 3 young Israelis. As a result, 2300 Palestinians were killed, along with 67 Israeli soldiers.

A common theme in all these attacks is that each incursion into Gaza was claimed to be a reaction and response to Hamas launching rockets into southern Israel. Hamas, on the other hand, claimed that it was reacting and responding to both the humanitarian crisis caused by the Gaza lockdown as well as by provocative military action by Israeli forces.

Today, the war between Israel and Palestine seems to have no end, as this crisis continues to drag on with each passing year.

The Future

So, where does this leave us? Palestine and Israel continue to fight over this land, each side supported by various nations and communities, but there seems to be no end in sight for this conflict. Nations have been unable to even agree upon a solution. Should there be a one State or Two State solution? Should Palestine and Israel become one country, or two separate countries?

The Palestinians have grown pessimistic over time about gaining their own independent state. Meanwhile, settlements continue to expand in the West Back as well as around and within East Jerusalem, making it possible by Israel to claim those areas. Over time, Israeli politics have become further to the right, with ultra-Orthodox settlers refusing to consider any negotiation with Palestinians that would involve giving up any land. The Israeli government to a vote from the settlers and gave mixed signals regarding a two-state solution.

In retaliation to Israel’s oppression, Palestinians have established the BDS movement, Boycott, Divestment and Sanction. This is a non-violent movement by Palestinians calling for an international boycott of Israeli products as well as cultural and academic boycott as a way of isolating Israel in the global community, and a way to pressurize Israel into negotiations. IN response, various efforts have tried to discredit and even criminalize BDS, which have proven to be moderately effective.

Palestine faces another new challenge today. US has always been an ally of Israel, but now that alliance may be stronger than ever. In 2016, Donald Trump was elected President of the USA. On December 6th, 2017, President Trump recognized Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel and announced the relocation of the US Embassy to West Jerusalem from Tel Aviv, breaking a decades long US policy. Other countries have been reluctant to move their embassies to Jerusalem, as it is still recognized under international law and UN resolutions as occupied territory.

Palestinians and their allies protested Trump’s decision and used the incident to affirm their long-held view that the US is not impartial in the peace process and is biased towards Israel.

Recently, President Trump has recognized Israel’s claim over the Golan Heights, an area it has held since the 1967 Six Day War and in violation of international law.

Trump’s son-in-law Jared Kushner has been appointed by President Trump to develop and offer the so-called deal of the century regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. While details remain undisclosed, sources familiar with the proposal have commented that any current deal is focused on providing economic assistance to the Palestinians, but no sovereignty or independent state of any kind. Kushner has recently made public comments questioning whether the Palestinians are in fact capable of self-governance, a sentiment held by the British during World War I in their quest for regional dominance and establishment of the British Mandate.

The prospects for either a one or two state solution for the Palestinians remains elusive and there is no indication that the status quo will change any time soon.

Conclusion:

There seems to be no end in sight for the problems facing the Palestinian community. Israel continues to grow in strength, supported by the United States of America. Under Donald Trump’s administration, there is a lot of fear that things could get even worse for the citizens of occupied Palestine.

We have reached the end of this series discussing the history of Palestine, a history that is still unfolding in our lifetime. I hope you have found these episodes beneficial and enlightening. Join us next season for even more discussions on recent history on 1400 OMG.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this episode and season and don’t forget to let us know your thoughts, rate us and please donate as well! 

S2: Episode 7: My journey to Salah

It’s our last episode for Season 2 🙁

Leanne throws her first salah party! She gets to choose 1 salah. She invites her friends to play with her outside but something happens… Alhamdullillah 🙂

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My Journey to Salah

It was my special day. I was turning 7 years old and my mum said I could have a salah party on my 7th birthday.
 
“Leyan, since you’re turning 7 and you’re a big girl now it’s time for you to start practising salah with us! I want you to start by choosing one salah to pray every day for the next 6 months. Every 6 months until you’re 10 we will add a salah until you can pray all 5 prayers with Mum and Dad. I’m so excited for you Leyan! And I’m so curious which of the 5 salahs will you choose first, will it be Maghrib because it’s 3 racket, or will you choose Asr so you can pray together with me when you come back from school, or will it be Duhr so you can pray with your friends at school? Will it be ‘Isha so you, Baba and I can pray together, or Fajr so you can get up in the middle of the night?!”
 
“Oh Mummy! This is a hard one! I’m not sure, can you choose for me?”
 
“Oh Leyan, I would love to but this is your salah journey and you can do it! Anyway think about it and you can announce it at your party later!”
 
I was so excited for the party it was going to start at 12 o’clock in the afternoon. All my friends were going to come.
 
“I can’t wait Mama! Is it 12 o’clock yet?!”
 
“Not yet, missy!” said Mama.
 
I was going to get my new salah dress and salah mat. My friends and I were all going to play outside. It was going to be spectacular! By 11 o’clock I was ready! My dress, my hair, my nail polish were all perfect!
 
“Mama what can I do now?” I asked.
I wanted to help her do everything! Mama had worked so hard to decorate outside so that my salah party would look beautiful!
 
“Leyan my dear, can you come outside with me to lay the sweets on the table?” Mum replied.
 
I raced out the door.
 
“Err..shoes please!” Mum snapped.
 
I ran back to grab my purple shimmery shoes which matched my dress.
As I walked out the door, SPLAT! I felt a drop of water on my face!
 
“Mama! What was that?!” I shrieked.
“What was what?! Oops!” she said.
SPLAT! Another drop fell from the sky!
 
“Mama! It’s starting to rain!” I whimpered.
“I thought you said the weather was going to be perfect! My party is ruined!”
“We checked the weather forecast Leyan. They said it would be sunny and it hasn’t rained in a week!” Mama said.
 
Mama looked up at the sky and said “Ya Rabee laka alhamd”.
She kept repeating “alhamdulillah, alhamdulillah”.
 
I was cross! “Why are you saying alhamdulillah when its raining?! My party is ruined!” I sobbed.
 
Baba came inside and said, “Since it’s raining what do you want to do?”
 
Mum said, “Khair! It’s all good! Alhamdulillah, we will do it inside the house.”
 
“I don’t want to do it inside!” I yelled.
“I want to play in the garden and have a picnic! And how am I going to do that inside?!”
They both held me tight and said, “Leyan, we understand that you’re upset right now. You’re upset that it’s raining and it might look like your party is ruined, but when something doesn’t go your way you say alhamdulillah and try to find another way. Allah loves you and wants you to be happy, especially because we are celebrating salah! Something which Allah loves. So insha’Allah He will give you something better. You have to be patient.”
 
Baba said, “Give me your hand let’s run in the rain and grab all the things from outside.”
I held his hand reluctantly. With the rain and tears mixed on my cheeks, I didn’t know how my party was going to be fun anymore!
I was mad at Mum and Dad for repeating alhamdulillah and I was mad at the rain and I wondered, why did Allah do that?! Why did Allah make it rain?!
 
The door bell rang. The first guest was here. It was my auntie. Khala was so warm and lovely. She put on some nasheeds and started to help us decorate the front room.
 
The room sparkled with glitter and began to look nice. Not as nice as the outside I thought to myself!
Khala told me that when it rains your prayers are answered super fast! So I closed my eyes with her and we made a prayer.
“Ya Allah, please let my party be really really fun!” I said.
I started to feel a little bit better and we laid out all the prayer mats before the other guests arrived.
 
My friends started to arrive one by one and they didn’t seem too upset at all! In fact they were so happy they didn’t care about the party being inside. Things felt better already. We played games, laughed, ate and made prayer mats together! I was having so much fun I forgot about the rain outside!
 
“Guys, look! A rainbow!” Shouted Maryam.
My eyes lit up! The rain had stopped and Baba had opened the patio doors so we could all go play outside!
We ran happily! Oh I was so happy! It was perfect!
 
My friends and I had so much fun. It was even better than the party I planned!
That’s when my Mum whispered, “See Leyan, we plan and Allah plans. And His plans always work best! So always say alhamdulillah even when something doesn’t go your way because Allah’s plans are the very best!”
 
I cuddled her and smiled. I understood what Mama was saying now. “Alhamdulillah” I said.
 
“Now are you ready to tell everyone which salah you’re going to start with?”
“Errm..I think so!”
 
“Everyone!” said Mum.
“Everyone, please gather around. Leyan would like to share with you all which salah she will be practising first.”
“So Leyan, which salah is it going to be?”
 
“Drumroll please!”
 
“Ummm…Maghriiiib!”
Yay! Everyone clapped and cheered.
 
“Why did you choose that one?” Mum asked.
“Because I want to pray together with you and Baba and because it’ll be easy, it’s only 3 rak’at!”
 
Everyone laughed.
 
Baba said, “Let’s all raise our hands and ask Allah to bless Leyan’s salah journey and accept our salahs and our children’s salah! Everyone say Ameen!”
 
“Aameen!” They all shouted.
 
What a wonderful day it turned out to be!
 
Remember you plan and Allah plans and Allah is the best of planners!
 
So, which salah will you choose to start your salah journey with?
 
Toledo Society is funded purely from the generosity of our listeners and those who believe in our mission. These funds are used to produce the shows that are currently live, as well as those in our pipeline. Contribute here.

S2: Episode 6: Save water

Save water

“Splash! Splash!” 
Khadija and Lamees splashed all over the place!
It was bath time and they loved playing for hours in the bubbly water.
 
“Woohoooo!” cheered Lamees.
“Let’s make another big splash!”
Woosh! she jumped up and down and the water filled the bathtub and went over the sides of the bath covering the floor!
 
“Oops!” said khadeja 
“I think Dad is going to be upset!”
 
They giggled and started to do smaller jumps instead of big ones.
Still though, water was splashing over the sides of the bathtub.
 
What they didn’t realise was that the water was slowly dripping onto the downstairs ceiling. Dad was in charge today. Mama was taking the day off to relax and so he was in the kitchen preparing dinner.
 
“Are you okay girls?” Dad called from downstairs.
 
“Yes Baba, we’re fine!” wailed Khadija.
 
Meanwhile the ceiling in the living room was leaking and the water was dripping onto Mama’s best sofa, she had only bought it recently.
 
“Do you know that Mum and Dad say that if we use too much water it will all disappear?!” Lamees exclaimed.
“Nonesense!” replied Khadija.
“Look there’s more water it will never run out!” and she turned on the tap to show Lamees.
 
They both giggled and fell back into the bubbles.
 
“Do you know that if there’s no water we would die because we need water to survive?” said Lamees.
 
“Okay clever clogs!” said Khadija.
“I will turn off the tap.”
 
Drip drip!
As more water spilt over onto the bathroom floor, downstairs the ceiling was leaking!
 
As their Dad turned off the cooker downstairs he started to hear a loud dripping sound.
That’s strange he thought! He checked the sinks and then started to look for where the dripping sound was coming from.
 
Puzzled, he started to look around. 
The dripping sound got louder the closer he got to the front room.
 
Suddenly he spotted the bubbles in the ceiling.
The special sofa was very wet, it had caught some of the water!
 
Dad rushed over looking up at the ceiling. 
“Oh no!” He raced upstairs to see the girls splashing away!
 
“Stop girls! The ceiling downstairs is leaking!”
 
The girls froze! They could see their dad was clearly upset.
 
“Why is there is so much water on the floor?!”
Their dad wobbled and almost slipped as he tried to tip toe on the bathroom floor.
 
Khadija and Lamees suddenly felt bad.
“Sorry baba! We didn’t know.” 
 
Baba was not happy at all, he had a cross face!
 
“I told you not to waste water! I told you to be responsible and you both promised!”
 
The girls came out of the bath and helped their Dad drain the water. They were upset with themselves. Baba told them he didn’t want to talk until all the work was done.
 
Downstairs they watched their Dad work really hard drying everything whilst they tried to eat their dinner.
 
“I don’t feel hungry.” whispered Lamees.
 
“Me neither!” said Khadija
 
Dad overheard them, “I hope you don’t waste the food on your plates.” he said. “You’ve wasted enough water today! Eat up!”
 
The girls finished their dinner in silence.
 
The TV was on and the lady on the news was talking about a country called Somalia where there was something called a “drought”. 
 
“What is a drought?” whispered Khadija. 
 
Lamees shrugged her shoulders, “I don’t know.”
 
The lady on the news explained how the land was all cracked and the poor children looked very tired and sick, they had no water and very little food she explained.
They were getting more sick because the water was dirty.
 
Lamees and Khadeja felt even worse.
They finished their food and went up to their room ready for bed.
 
“I feel so bad I don’t think I can sleep!” said Lamees.
 
“Me too! I think we should do something to say sorry to Mum and Dad and also to the children in Somalia!”
 
They heard their Dad coming up the stairs.
 
Dad asked them to pick out a book for bedtime and they chose a book that had lots of lovely drawings and the words from the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
As they were reading their book they found a hadith of the Prophet Muhammad, he said, “Do not waste water even if you were at a flowing stream.”
 
“Let’s make a big poster!” said Lamees!
 
Lamees was good at handwriting and Khadija was good at drawing they worked together and drew a drop of water and the Planet Earth.
 
Lamees carefully copied the hadith of Prophet Muhammad. 
 
The girls were almost done when they heard their Mum downstairs,
“Assalamu alaikum everyone!” she said as she walked in through the door.
 
They quickly picked up their poster hiding it behind their backs and raced down the stairs. 
 
Suddenly Mum gasped as she walked into the front she saw her new sofa, all wet! “Oh no! my new sofa!”
Dad was still trying to dry the ceiling and the sofa. He looked tired.
 
Mum turned to look at the girls, disappointed.
 
“Sorry Mama we didn’t mean it, it was an accident!” they both said. 
 
“We have made something for you because we want to say sorry!”
 
They pulled out the poster from behind them.
Mum and Dad’s eyes lit up!
Suddenly, Dad didn’t look so sad anymore! 
 
“Salaa Allah ala Muhammad (sending salutations upon the Prophet). What a beautiful hadith?!”
He sighed and they had a family group hug.
 
The next day they took their poster to school and told their class all about what they had learned. The children decided to spread the word and make more “save water” posters to hang around the school.
 
Khadija and Lamees went home with a happy heart.
 
Allah gave us this Earth to look after. We should never be wasteful even if we have so much. There are others around the world who don’t have the same blessings as we do. Be grateful always and share what know with your friends.
 
You never know, maybe one day you will make a big difference!
 

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S2E7: Palestine Pt 7 – 1400 OMG

Where is this conflict heading? Is there a plan, a happy end, reconciliation? What does the future hold for the people in these lands?

These are the questions going through the minds of millions of people around the world regarding the Palestine/Israel saga. Over the past three episodes, we dove into the history of Palestine from the first Jewish immigrant over a hundred years ago, to the formation of Israel and its rise to power.

I wish I could tell you this story has a happy ending. In fact, I wish I could tell you how it ends, but I can’t. Because this story isn’t over yet. This is not just history. It is an ongoing crisis in the world today.

Listen online at the bottom of this page, or wherever you get your podcasts:
Download now on Apple Podcasts.
Stream for free on Spotify.

Transcript

Where is this conflict heading? Is there a plan, a happy end, reconciliation? What does the future hold for the people in these lands?

These are the questions going through the minds of millions of people around the world regarding the Palestine/Israel saga. Over the past three episodes, we dove into the history of Palestine from the first Jewish immigrant over a hundred years ago, to the formation of Israel and its rise to power.

I wish I could tell you this story has a happy ending. In fact, I wish I could tell you how it ends, but I can’t. Because this story isn’t over yet. This is not just history. It is an ongoing crisis in the world today.

The Palestine/Israel conflict continues today with no end in sight. In today’s episode, we will look at recent events in this conflict and take a peek at what the future might hold.

Hold on to your hats, because we are about to dive deeper into the history of Palestine.

From Toledo Society, I am Professor Saeed Khan, and this is…. OMG 1400… your guide to what the hell happened in modern Muslim history.

Intro

In this series, we investigate the key events in the Muslim world over the last two centuries and dig deep into some of the root causes of the situation many find themselves in today.

Over the past few episodes, we discussed the events that led to the formation of the State of Israel and the Palestine Crisis. Today, we will conclude the history of Palestine by looking at events in recent history.

Segment 1: Camp David

When we last left Palestine, there were ongoing hostilities between Israel and Egypt. Israel had forcibly seized many lands, including lands that previously belonged to Egypt. To settle the problems between the two countries, the President of the United Stated called a secret meeting in Camp David.

Camp David is the country retreat for the president of the United States. It is in the wooded hills of Catoctin Mountain Park near Thurmont, Maryland. In 1977, it was the location of a secret meeting between the presidents of Egypt, Israel and USA.

Anwar al Sadat, the president of Egypt, was focused on restoring diplomatic ties with Israel for the sake of the Egyptian economy. To do this, he went to Jerusalem to meet the Prime Minister of Israel, Menachem Begin, to discuss their differences. Sadat wanted to improve relationships with Israel while also solving the Palestinian issue. Begin was open to discussions of peace with Egypt but had no intention of relinquishing Israel’s hold on West Bank and Gaza. Unable to come to terms, they turned to the USA for help.

To facilitate the discussions, President Jimmy Carter organized a secret meeting between the three leaders (himself, Sadat and Begin) in Camp David. The results, the Camp David Accords, signed on September 17th, 1978.

The Accords produced two important documents. The first was a framework for peace in the Middle East. The document endorsed the UN Resolution 242 as the basis for settlement for the Middle East conflict. It also proposed a staged plan for achievement of Palestinian autonomy in 5 years, but this proposal was vague and open-ended, so it didn’t really mean anything. This document was considered a victory for Israel and a defeat for the idea of a Palestinian State. At Camp David, Israel won right to deal with Occupied Territories as it saw fit, even though this was not immediately apparent to Sadat and Carter.

The second document included the conditions for an Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty. The formal peace treaty was signed in March 1979. The two countries exchanged ambassadors, and in 1982, Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai, and the USA provided $3 Billion in aid to assist with restoration of the area. But the framework for peace with Palestine was never implemented. Israel exchanged Sinai for the West Bank and Gaza, and by making peace with Egypt, it had neutralized the powerful Arab army in the region. Israel had won.

That year, both Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. But there were serious consequences for this treaty. The Arab world was shocked by Egypt’s actions and as a result, Egypt was expelled from the Arab League. Most Arab Nations, excluding Oman and Sudan, broke diplomatic ties with Egypt, and the oil producing countries cancelled their subsidiaries. Isolated from the rest of the Arab world, Egypt became dependent on the US for economic support.

On October 6th, 1981, on anniversary of Egypt’s successful military campaign against Israel in the Sinai, Sadat was assassinated by extremists, in part for his perceived betrayal in making peace with Israel. He was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.

The Camp David Accords, in the end, harmed both Egypt and Palestine. It was a huge win for Israel, but it still wasn’t enough.

Segment 2: The Refugee Massacre

The PLO had been operating in exile in Jordan and Lebanon. It was designated a terrorist organization by the US, Israel and several other western countries based on it taking responsibility for a host of actions against military and civilian targets, including hijackings of commercial airliners, cruise ships and other bombings.

In 1982, during the Lebanese Civil War, which began in 1975, the Israeli Defense Forces ordered their Lebanese allies, the Christian Phalange, to expel PLO fighters from the Sabra and Shatilla refugee camps that housed thousands of Palestinians. Phalange forces, aided by Israeli military, engaged in a massacre, with estimated ranging between 450 to 3500 Palestinian men, women and children being killed.

The act received condemnation from the UN and several governments. An Israeli commission held Defense Minister and future PM Ariel Sharon responsible for the massacre for not taking action to prevent it.

Segment 3: The First Intifada

In December 1987, the first Intifada occurred. Intifada means resistance, and is the name given to the first time that Palestinian civilizations resisted Israeli aggression and fought back. It caught the PLO by surprise as it was a movement that began and was organized by Palestinian society itself. It involved acts of civil disobedience and boycotts, but also included protests and demonstrations that in some cases turned violent against Israeli security authorities.

The Intifada was caused by two decades of life under Israeli occupation. The Palestinians had grown frustrated at the oppression at the hands of the Israeli regime. During these two decades, many of their homes had been demolished, many of their farmlands were destroyed, and many of them were detained without charge, and even tortured. There were also a lot of restrictions on travel and employment. All these factors caused frustration for the Palestinians who decided to fight back and express their anger through the Intifada.

In retaliation, Israel deployed eighty thousand soldiers to quell the unrest. In the aftermath, over two thousand Palestinians were killed, along with 277 Israelis. The intifada led to the Madrid Conference of 1991. In this conference, the US and Russia convened an international summit for peace talks between the PLO and Israel.

Segment 4: Attempts at reconciliation

The Madrid Talks was the first major attempt at discussion between Israel and the Arab Nations. It was headed by President George H.W. Bush and Secretary of State James Baker III. A Palestinian-Jordanian Delegation joined the talks. The importance of this event is that it was the first major event where the Palestinian question was addressed directly, and the first time the “land for peace’ solution was proposed. This event opened the doors to further peace talks and negotiations.

In 1993, the Oslo Accords were signed. The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between Israel and the PLO. The accords were signed between PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, in Washington DC. Based on the accords, the PLO had to recognize Israel as a State. In Return, Palestine was granted a limited self-government parts of Gaza and the West Bank. Israel also agreed to withdraw partially from Gaza and Jericho. Palestine agreed to call an election for a Palestinian Authority to succeed the PLO. And Israel would withdraw from Civil Administration of the West Bank.

But the agreement failed. Due to violence from both sides, including a massacre by Israelis and suicide bombings by Palestinians, neither side agreed to peace, and the accords did not result in a Palestinian State. Israel continued to expand, taking over various Palestinian territories and building settlements in these lands. In 1995, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by Yigal Amir.

A stalemate continued between the two nations. Another negotiation was attempted in 1998, known as the Wye River Memorandum. It was chaired by Yassir Arafat, King Hussain of Jordan, President Bill Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. But it did not result in any positive change. The two sides remained hostile to each other, and there seemed to be no hope for peace.

Enjoyed this episode? Please share and give us 5-star rating on Apple, Stitcher, Spotify Podcasts.

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S2: Episode 5: No one sees me

No one sees me

Noah quickly hid his money box under the bed.
 
“Are you okay Noah?” said his big sister Salma, as she stood at the doorway.
 
Yes yes. I’m fine. Noah snapped.
 
Salma was confused. What was Noah up to she wondered?!
 
Mum was calling them to dinner, so Salma quickly rushed downstairs forgetting all about what had happened.
 
Noah, let out a big sigh of relief! Ahhh
 
He was trying to collect money for charity, it was for a good cause, He had heard Uncle Amin, imam of the mosque say they only need 100 pounds more for the school to open. It was a school for Syrian children. These children left their country because of the war and Noah wanted to help them. The school was supposed to open in November so he needed to collect all the money before then!
 
Now Noah knew he really shouldn’t take money from his Dad’s wallet but how else was he going to help the children to go to school? Everyday he would take money from someone else’s wallet, one day it was his Dad’s, then his sister’s and the next day it would be mums, and finally Grandpa.
 
A little money every day didn’t hurt and surely it was okay.
His family would be happy they helped the Syrian children in the end! He was sure of it!
 
Noah still couldn’t help feeling a knot in his stomach every day when he sneaked the money into his bedroom though. 
 
At that thought he quickly hid his money box under his bed and ran downstairs. 
 
“Come on, hurry” Mum said. “Where have you been?”
 
“Err..I just had some school homework to finish off,” Noah lied. 
 
“I thought you didn’t get homework until Friday?”
 
“Err, yes but Miss Foster gave us some work this week.” Noah felt his cheeks might give away his lies. 
 
Stop lying a voice in his head snapped! 
Another voice said, it’s okay, it’s for a good cause!
 
“Noah! stop staring at your dinner and eat up” Mum shouted. 
 
Salma looked at him from across the table, it made Noah feel uncomfortable. 
 
He tried to eat but the food wouldn’t go down properly. His stomach was in knots. It’s hard to eat when you’re keeping an important secret
 
After mum said he could go, noah sneaked up to his room and closed the door behind him. He leaned over to take out the money from under his bed – it was time to count.
 
“1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6..” Noah counted his money carefully writing down the numbers every so often so he didn’t forget.
 
All of a sudden he heard his Dad call from downstairs, “Salma! have you taken money from my wallet?!”  
 
Noah froze and stopped counting.
 
Salma replied from her bedroom next door! “No Pappa” of course not. How could I take money from your wallet without asking you?!”
 
“That’s odd he said..”
 
“I specifically put 5 pounds in my wallet to give to Laura the cleaner – she’s coming any minute now.”
 
“You know I felt I was missing some money too.” Mum replied.
“Maybe the cleaner is taking money, we better watch her.”
 
Noah listened carefully. He felt absolutely terrible. He hoped they wouldn’t get the cleaner into trouble. Laura was such a nice lady, she was so warm and kind, why would she ever do such a thing?!
 
A moment later the doorbell rang and Noah’s friend Adam was at the door.
 
Noah heard Adam ask his mum..
 
“Can Noah play, Mrs Mohammed?”
 
“Oh, I’m afraid Noah has been very busy with his homework. He is upstairs in his room.” She replied
 
Oh no! Noah thought, Adam who was in Noah’s class knew they didn’t get any homework. He hoped Adam wouldn’t say anything…
 
“But mrs mohammad, Adam said.
“We didn’t get our homework yet!”
 
Noah closed his eyes. He felt so bad. He didn’t like telling so many lies and he wondered what his mum was thinking!
 
He raced down the stairs quickly forgetting all about his money box!
 
“Salaam Adam” said Noah, “let’s play outside!” He dragged Adam out with him.
 
“I’ll speak to you after you’re done playing” Mum said.
” Don’t be too long now, you’ve got school tomorrow!”
 
“Okay, Ma!” Noah said, popping his head around the door avoiding looking at mum.
 
Laura the cleaner arrived and asked Mrs Mohammad where she can she start cleaning.
Noah’s mum said she could start cleaning Noah’s room since he was out playing.
 
A few moments later Laura appeared, She looked a bit confused.
“Are you okay Laura?” asked Mrs Mohammed.
 
“Yes I’m fine, but I just wanted to give you this money, because it was spread all over Noah’s bedroom floor.”
 
Mrs Mohammed looked confused. 
“Oh! Thank you Laura.”
 
Mrs mohammad looked at Noahs dad, “I think we need to call Noah inside.”
 
Noah’s mum and dad called Noah in and asked him to sit down.
 
“Why do I have to come back in so early anyway?! Noah complained. 
“It’s not fair!”
 
Mum looked cross. “Sit down please Noah. I’d like you to explain where this money came from and why it was all over your bedroom floor!”
 
Noah’s heart began to race, his cheeks burned bright. He didn’t know what to say.
“I’ve been collecting money for the Imam, he said the Syrian children need 100 pounds for their school to open!” He stumbled.
 
Mum and Dad listened.
 
“But where is all this money coming from Noah?!” Dad asked.
 
Noah fell silent.
 
“Have you been taking money from my wallet asked Dad?!”
 
Noah hesitantly nodded.
 
“In fact you’ve been taking money from everyone in this house!”
 
“Do you think that’s the right thing to do Noah??” Asked Mum.
 
Noah shrugged his shoulders “But it’s for the children he whispered.”
 
Tears rolled down Noah’s cheeks.
 
“I’m sorry”, he said. “I’m very sorry!”
 
Mum and Dad stayed silent.
“Please go up to your room and take some time to think about what you’ve done. We’ll talk about this later.”
 
Noah felt sad but he also felt cross because he really wanted the money for the Syrian children why didn’t they understand how important this is!
 
A short while later Mum and Dad went up to Noah’s room and asked him to put on his clothes.
Dad was going to take him somewhere important.
 
Noah was confused, he didn’t feel like going anywhere but he put on his clothes and accompanied Dad.
 
They arrived at the mosque, it was Maghrib time and Dad held Noah by the hand and walked him towards Mr Ameen the imam of the mosque. 
 
“Assalamu alaikum Mr Ameen”, said dad.
 
“Walaikum assalam” the imam replied with a smile, he patted Noah’s head.
 
“Mr Ameen”, said Noah’s Dad. “We’ve come today because Noah my son would like to donate 100 pounds towards the Syrian school.” 
 
Noah gasped! He was shocked.
Where was baba going to get all the money from?!
 
“Noah has been trying to collect money for a while and today I decided to help him.”
Noah felt so happy.
 
“Thank you Dad!”
Noah hugged his dad and the imam was delighted. 
 
The imam made an announcement after the prayer was over that Noah had donated 100 pounds to the Syrian school.
Everybody patted Noah on the head and made a prayer for him.
 
Noah felt so proud and thanked Allah.
 
As they made their way back home Noah said, “Dad, do you forgive me?”
 
“I do forgive you Noah, and I hope you will learn your lesson never to take anything that doesn’t belong to you, even if it is for a good cause! Do you promise?”
 
“I promise!” Replied Noah
 
– Thank you for listening
 
If you have enjoyed this story and this special podcast show, please give us a 5-star rating on your favourite podcast player (Apple, Google or Spotify)

S2: Episode 4: Basma and Stardust

Basma and Stardust

Basma couldn’t stop biting her nails. She was nervous because it was her first horse riding lesson.

She loved horses, and had wanted to ride for as long as she could remember. But now – when it was her chance to try it for the first time – she was getting cold feet.

Her mind was racing as she worried about all sorts of things that could go wrong:

  • What if the horse didn’t like her?
  • What if it didn’t want her to get on?
  • Would he throw her off?
  • Maybe it was too soon…maybe she should come back when she was older.

It was too much for her to bear, and she turned to walk away.

Mother: “Basma. Where are you going? It’s almost your turn to ride?”

Basma (yelling): “I don’t want to! I changed my mind…”

Basma (pleasing): “Can’t we just go home?”

Her mother knelt beside her and looked her in the eyes:

Mother:  “Basma…I know you’re scared. But remember: this has been your dream for so long. Let’s just try it out and see.”

Basma (refusing): “No! I’m scared!”

Mother: “Basma…let’s breathe. Take 3 deep breaths with me….In through the nose, and out through the mouth.” her mom said.

Mother: “Are you ready?”

Basma (nervously): “Um….I…OK…yes”

Mother: “One…” (Mom breathes first, then Basma)

Mother: “Two…” (Mom breathes first, then Basma)

Mother: “Three…” (Mom breathes first, then Basma)

Mother: “Feeling better?”

Basma (whispering): “No….well….a little, I guess.”

Mother: “OK – let’s try this, then.”
“Tell me 4 things you can see.”

Basma looked around:

Basma: “Um….trees. I see trees.”

Mother: “Good! What else?”

Basma: “Clouds. That one looks like cotton candy!”

Mother: “Yummy!”

Basma: “Grass! I see lovely green grass”

Mother: “It is beautiful”

“One more, Basma. What else do you see?”

<Rooster sound effect: Cocka-doodle-doo!> shrieked a rooster

Basma: “A rooster! I see a rooster!”

Mother: “Awesome, Basma!”

Mother: “Now…what can you hear? Tell me three things you can hear.”

Basma: “Birds! They’re singing so beautifully today!”

Mother (agreeing): “They certainly are!”

Basma: “I know! Children playing! I can hear them on the playground.”

Mother: “Nice, Basma! Maybe we can go play with them later…”

Basma: “That would be nice.”

Basma: “Crickets…I hear crickets!”

Mother: “Really? I can’t even…” <cricket sound effect>…”Oh. There it is!”

Mother: “Are you alright now, Basma?”

Basma: “Almost…this is fun!”

Mother: “OK, OK.”

“Now…what can you smell? Name two things!”

Basma took a few deep sniffs.

Basma: “The air! It’s got a lovely fresh smell to it.”

Mother: “Yes, Basma. It’s always beautiful after the rain. Alhamdullilah.”

Basma thought a little while longer.

Basma: “Strawberry….I smell strawberry!”

Mother (confused): “But there are no strawberries here,”.

Basma smiled slyly.

Mom took a while, then figured it out.

Mother: “You sneaked bubblegum out of the cupboard at home, didn’t you?!”

<Basma giggles>: “Just one piece!”

Mother: “OK, OK. But next time, ask before you take.”

Basma:: “Yes, mom.”

Mother: “OK Basma…last one. Tell me what you can…..TOUCH!”

Basma thought long about it, then ran into mom’s arms and gave her a big hug.

Basma: “You! I can touch you, mom!”

Mother: “And mommy loves you!”

Mother: “Are you alright now, Basma? Can we go see the horses?”

Basma (tentatively): “Um….OK. Yes…let’s go.”

Basma took a deep breath, then headed off to the stables with mom.

<sound of horses neighing>

Basma: “Mom! Look!” Basma pointed at a big, chestnut brown horse.

Mother: “Wow! Shall we go say hello?”

Basma stepped forward slowly, then stopped. Walking over to her was the most beautiful dapple grey horse, smaller than the others.

Basma: “It’s so pretty! Look how his coat shines!”

“He likes you!” said a lady walking behind the horse. “I think he was waiting for you to come ride.”

Mother: “What’s his name?”

Macy: “Stardust. And I’m Macy. Nice to meet you.”

Mother: “Nice to meet you too” said mom.

Basma (excited): “Staaaaar-dust!”

Macy: “Come on. Let’s get you started.”

She got a little purple helmet out and fastened it onto Basma’s head.

Macy: “Safety first!”

Basma walked slowly towards Stardust and put her hand on his mane.

<sound of horse neighing then snorting>

Basma pulled away.

Macy: “Don’t worry. He won’t hurt you. He’s really friendly!”

Basma nodded.

Macy: “Come on.”

She led Basma to the left side of Stardust, helped her put her foot into the stirrup, then helped her get up onto Stardust.

Macy: “Since it’s your first time, you just hang onto the reins, and I’m going to lead him.”

Basma (nervous): “OK”

Mother: “Basma..let’s first recite our dua before you go.”

<Mom and Basma recite together>

In the name of Allah it will go, and in the name of Allah it will stop. Indeed our Lord is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Macy: “Shall we?”

Mom and Basma nodded in unison.

Macy led Stardust, as he trotted down a path through the meadow. Basma was a little nervous, but the further they went, the more confident she became.

As Stardust started walking faster, Basma closed her eyes and felt the wind through her hair.

She imagined Stardust was galloping through the meadow, as she held on a steered him all through the flowers. He came to a gate, but jumped right over!

Basma: “Wheeeee!!!”

“This is so much fun!”

She couldn’t contain her joy. It was almost as if Stardust was made for her!

<Mom’s voice coming from afar> “…Basma…Basma! Are you OK?”

Basma opened her eyes and looked around. Macy was smiling, still pulling Stardust along. She was daydreaming!

Macy (laughing): “I can see you’re enjoying this!”

Basma: “Mm hmm.”

Macy led Stardust around one last corner, then back to Basma’s mom.

Basma (squealing): “That was so much fun! Can we come again tomorrow? Please?! Please, mom?!”

Mother (playful tone): “You’re not scared anymore?”

Basma: “No! I love Stardust! I want to ride every day!”

Narrator’s voice: “Sometimes, it can be difficult to start something new, and our worries can stop us from trying. But if we just take some time to try to calm down, and go slowly, we often find that it’s not as scary as we thought. If we face our fears – with some help from others – we grow braver, and we can end up having a lot of fun!”

Written by: Yacoob Manjoo – South Africa

S2E6: Palestine Pt 6 – 1400 OMG

Another ten years passed of relative peace, yet tension, in region. Then, in 1967, the famous Six Day War occurred. It began in May 1967, Nasser orders naval blockade of the Gulf of Tiran to protest the Israeli diversion of the Jordan River. Out of fear of an Arab attack as revenge for 1948, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike on Egypt, Jordan and Syria. On June 5th, 1967, Israeli troops crossed over and occupied the Sinai Peninsula. They also invaded and occupied Gaza, the West Bank and Arab East Jerusalem. 

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Transcript

The Six Day War

Another ten years passed of relative peace, yet tension, in region. Then, in 1967, the famous Six Day War occurred. It began in May 1967, Nasser orders naval blockade of the Gulf of Tiran to protest the Israeli diversion of the Jordan River. Out of fear of an Arab attack as revenge for 1948, Israel launched a pre-emptive strike on Egypt, Jordan and Syria. On June 5th, 1967, Israeli troops crossed over and occupied the Sinai Peninsula. They also invaded and occupied Gaza, the West Bank and Arab East Jerusalem. Israel continued its aggression and even captured the Golen Heights in Syria.

The UN managed to negotiate a ceasefire, but Israel refused to withdraw its troops from the captured territories. To deal with this, the UN unanimously passed Resolution 242 calling for Israel to withdraw from territories captured during the Six Day War. In return, the Arab countries must recognize Israel’s right to live peacefully within its borders. The UN also addressed the need to settle the Palestinian refugees who were uprooted during the Six Day War.

The resolution was rejected by the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Yasser Arafat. The losses incurred during the Six Day War were devastating to the Arabs, and became known as the Naksa (setback). After the Six Day War, Egypt and Israel remained locked in a war of attrition that lasted 3 years (from 1967 until 1970). This war resulted in the death of thousands on both sides. Nasser, unable to handle the loss of these events, offered to resign as President of Egypt. However, he received overwhelming support from his people and remained in power until he died of a heart attack in 1970. He was succeeded by Anwar Sadat.

This situation caused a lot of economic problems for Egypt, but Israel remained an obstacle. Sadat tried to realign Egypt with USA during the cold war. To accomplish this, he expelled almost twenty thousand Soviet military forces from Egypt. But this move was poorly timed. A few weeks later, the Munich Olympics Massacre occurred, and the US lost any sympathy may have still had for the Arab cause. At the Munich Olympics, a team of Palestinian militants captured Israeli participants and murdered them. This did not help the Palestinian cause and created further hostility in the region.

The 1973 War

In 1973, the Arabs were frustrated due to economic stagnation and the lack of progress in solving the problem of Israel. Anwar Sadat decided to use war to turn the tide in his favor. To do this, he allied with Syria and on October 6th, 1973, Egypt launched an attack across the Suez Canal, while Syria attacked the Golan Heights. Egypt were successful and crossed the Bar Lev line on the Israeli side of the Canal. They overwhelmed Israel and took control of the region. This event became known as the Crossing.

After the crossing, Egypt ceased their offence. Sadat had achieved his objectives. He has restored the military credibility of Egypt, taken some of the Israeli territory, and showed the superpowers that Israel was not so tough. Sadat waited for other countries to intervene and call for a ceasefire, but it never happened. In the meanwhile, Israel managed to overcome the Syrian assault and launched a counterstrike against Egypt.

On October 16th, 1973, General Ariel Sharon led an Israeli army across the Suez Canal, and came within striking distance of Cairo. The US and USSR called for a ceasefire, and all three countries agreed. The war was really just a proxy war for the US and USSR. The US had supplied weapons to Israel, while the USSR had done the same for Egypt and Syria.

The consequences of this war were not in favor of the Arabs. It served as a reminder of the potential for a direct superpower to intervene. In fact, the US played a bigger role in the region after this war. The second consequence was its impact on the oil industry. This war provided oil-producing nations with a level of power previously thought impossible to achieve.

OPEC had announced a 5% monthly reduction in oil production until Israel withdrew from occupied Arab territories, while Saudi Arabia suspended (indefinitely) all oil shipments to US. Oil prices soared, causing global concerns and worries. Europe and Japan decided to show more empathy for the Arabs due to their need for oil from them, while the US decided it needed to start depending less on the Arabs, and start producing more oil themselves. The importance of oil caused the US to play a more direct role in the Israel-Arab conflict.

After the war

As part of the fallout from the war, the US started playing a bigger role in Middle Eastern politics. In January 1974, Henry Kissinger, the US Secretary of State, negotiated for peace between Egypt and Israel. In September, he persuaded the two countries to sign an agreement that forced Israel to withdraw from Western Sinai. The US assisted both countries in recovering from the war. This event provided reconfirmation of special relationship between US and Israel, as seen during negotiations as well as through a 4-fold increase in military aid. But the US also provided Egypt with much needed financial aid, including money to rebuild Suez Canal, which reopened in 1975

The 1973 War was seen as a victory for Egypt. Anwar Sadat became known as the ‘Hero of the Crossing’. But now Egypt had to deal with its own economic problems. To do so, it needed to make peace with Israel, what happened next would shake the Arab world, leaving lasting consequences on the region.Conclusion:

Next time, we will discuss how Egypt and Israel came to terms, and the effects of their peace deal.

The creation of the State of Israel had caused political unrest and problems, both in the Middle East and across the globe. The alliance between Israel and USA would only further embolden Israeli aggression. In our next episode, we will conclude our history of Palestine by looking at events from the past 40 years of Palestinian history.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this episode and don’t forget to let us know your thoughts.
 
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